Occult and demonic forces are undermining world governments, heralding
the Day of Judgement of biblical infamy. At least, according to the New
Zealand Christian Evangelist Barry Smith. Barry Smith travels extensively
expounding his views on current affairs in relation to Biblical prophecy
about the Last Days. The phrase “the Last Days” refers to a period
immediately preceding the time when God will carry out final Judgement
on humankind. Prophecy about the Last Days generally deals with events
that can be seen as a warning that the biblical Day of Judgement is
imminent. The following is a critical review of Barry Smith’s claims, put
forth by him, in talks at West Bromwich Town Hall on 4th, 5th and 6th
October 1997 and another series of talks given at Zion Church, Chesterfield
on 11th, 12th and 13th September.
This review will briefly summarise Barry Smith’s ideas but will not cover
anything like the amount of detail that actually goes into his talks. Some
of his meetings are both audio and video taped, and he has written a series
of books dealing with his claims. Interested readers are encouraged to pursue
the details further for themselves.
According to Barry Smith the Common Market will be the final world empire,
which is represented by the feet of iron and clay in Daniel’s vision of the
statue; Dan. 2:31-45. The leader of the European Union will be the anti-Christ,
as described in the book of Revalation. The goal of the EU is to set up a “New World
Order” (NWO) in which there is a single world-wide monetary system and
world religion, the latter being set up by the World Council of Churches (WCC).
This religion, fears Barry Smith, would be “Luciferan” in nature. That is, devoted
to worship of Satan. The NWO will be brought about by the inauguration of a
“Global Village”, basically the assigning of production of certain commodities
to particular countries. He quotes Henry Kissenger as saying, “By controlling
energy we control nations, by controlling food we control individuals.”
To set up the “Global Village” every country will be made to lose it”s
independence by a process of overseas privatisation. Barry Smith alleges that
this is being done by two groups called the “International Monetary Fund” (IMF)
and the “World Bank”. In brief it works as follows; the international money
lenders loan large amounts of money to a country whose leaders unwittingly
sign “Conditionalities Policies”. After a number of years the international
money lenders then call on these conditions to be fulfilled and the country
has no choice but to comply. In order to fulfil the policies the countries
government will have to undergo “Restructuring”, “Corporatisation”, and
“Privatisation”. Institutions such as Telecom, the Post Office, and Unions
will be abolished, and shares will be sold overseas. The end result will be
that the debt has been paid but the country will be left with no money and
no assets. The country will become “ungovernable” and world-wide interdependence
enforced. This will effectively achieve the abolition of war and pave the way
for the “Global Village” and one-world-government.
Barry Smith claims that New Zealand was selected by the leaders of this NWO
plan, to be the “guinea pig” for these economic and governmental changes. He
then says that these principles will be spread to other countries in order to
destabilise each nation’s government thus making it more easy to control. The
alleged link between the Devil’s activities in the Last Days and current
government is made through the assertion that behind the facade of everyday
political activity there is a highly organised and hierarchical system of secret
occult societies. These societies, such as the Freemasons, Illuminati, Ordo Templi Orientis,
and the Palladium, are working to bring about the NWO in which the freedom
and power of individuals and nations will be compromised. Further to the
political and economic changes, he claims that each and every individual
will be made to receive a silicon chip implant in order to identify that
person, in a similar way that pets can currently be electronically tagged
in connection with quarantine laws. This will be the mark of the Beast
from Rev16:2 and 19:20 and will proceed from the introduction of electronic
cash cards, such as “Mondex”, and culminate in implants.
Furthermore, he claims that satellites have been used to map and divide
the whole planet into a series of grid squares, these are further sub-divided
to a very small, and therefore accurate, scale. Each of these grid squares
has a specific number which can be assigned to a person’s silicon chip
implant in order to identify not only them but also their exact location.
One of the key doctrines of the NWO is that developed by the philosophers
Kant and Hegel. This is stated as: thesis + antithesis = synthesis. That is,
bring two opposites together to form one new resultant. This, says Smith,
is the basis on which the NWO has “engineered” history. The “Cold War”,
and the negotiations for peace in Ireland, and between the Arabs and
Israel, are examples of this doctrine in action. With the end of the Cold
War a new polarity is needed to distract people and provide justification
for actions leading up to the implementation of the NWO. Therefore Barry
Smith claims that global warming, ozone depletion, and the nuclear threat
are all red-herrings designed to replace wars. His claims are summarised
in brief below:
a) global warming is not happening and sea levels will not rise. He
states as “evidence” cold weather in New Zealand and other places, and
the fact that when ice melts it takes up less volume not more.
b) ozone depletion is not happening. The “evidence”; the holes at the poles
grow and shrink with the seasons not because of ozone depleting gasses. There
are also no holes over the major cities. The reason for the fallacy is to
cause people in developing countries to get rid of their fridges resulting in
lack of food and medicine therefore death and so a reduction of the population.
c) nuclear bombs can only be detonated at two times during the year
when the sun is in the correct position. The “evidence” is mainly anecdotal,
and that past detonations only occur in certain months.
That is, very briefly, an outline of what Barry Smith claims to be taking
place in the world today. What follows is a critical evaluation of the assertions
made in this outline.
Much of Barry Smith’s theory rests on the connection between occult
symbolism and the secret societies. One of the main secret societies that
Barry Smith implicates in his theory is that of the “Illuminati”. According
to him this is where the idea behind the NWO began. The Illuminati were
founded in Bavaria in 1776 by a man called Adam Weishaupt. However, what
Barry Smith neglects to inform us, perhaps demonstrating his one-sided
approach, is that the Illuminati were disbanded by the Bavarian government
in 1785. Not only that but one of the heads of the society, Baron Knigge,
was a Christian. It is therefore unlikely that the objectives of the
Illuminati would have continued to the present day or have been
anti-Christian. From time to time groups have surfaced calling themselves,
or claiming to be, the Illuminati. However, there are not necessarily any
connections between these groups or the original Illuminati of Weishaupt
just because they share a name. It is interesting to note that there is a
connection with another secret society that Smith implicates, the
“Ordo Templi Orientis” (OTO). Two men, Theodore Reuss and Franz Hartmann,
who also belonged to a later group going by the name of the Illuminati
co-founded the OTO. Again there are many groups that use this name,
although the one that advertises itself on the WWW is the only one
recognised to be legitimate by the US Courts. However, this connection
certainly does not imply that the OTO are an extension of the Illuminati.
As regards the Freemasons, they are often accused of being a secret society
with occult or even Satanic connections. However, according to an
Anti-Masonry FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) compiled by T.W. McKeown 
Freemasons are not Satanists, and few would claim to be Luciferans. When
used the term “Luciferan”, rather than referring to the Christian devil,
denotes “a spirit of enquiry and a search for knowledge, wisdom and truth”.
It has nothing to do with worship, and no specific supreme being is
worshipped in Freemasonry.
He also points out that the word “Lucifer” itself actually refers to the
planet Venus not the Christian Devil. Smith quotes a statement, allegedly
by a man named Albert Pike, which asserts that Freemasons everywhere accept
Lucifer (as in the Christian Devil) as the real God and that he should be
worshipped accordingly. Firstly, Freemasonry claims not to have one head
who speaks for the whole fraternity. Secondly, Albert Pike is not considered
an authority on Freemasonry. Thirdly, Pike’s “Lucifer is God” statement was
a forgery by a hoaxster called Leo Taxil. Pike never gave the statement.
Leo Taxil was also responsible for another hoax. This was “The Palladium”, a
supposedly Satanic order within Freemasonry. Taxil admitted publicly to
this hoax. However, Barry Smith still assures us that the Palladium,
although it never existed, is one of the secret occult societies in the
hierarchy behind the NWO.
One of the main sources of evidence that Barry Smith relies on to back
up his claims that the secret societies are connected with the American
government is the symbolism he finds on the American dollar-bill. This is
known as the “Great Seal of the United States”. The problem here is that
some symbols are highly subjective. They can carry a simple core meaning
and be applied to whoever and whatever one wishes, even within Christianity.
Or the same symbol can have several completely different and even contradictory
meanings given to it which can change through time. This depends on the
First of all Barry Smith claims that the “eagle” on the American dollar-bill
is not an eagle at all but actually a phoenix. A phoenix is a mythical bird
which, after being devoured by fire, rises from it’s own ashes to new life.
Barry Smith equates this symbol with the Tower of Babel, after Manley Hall,
and claims that this, in turn, is a symbol representing the NWO. That the
eagle has been interpreted as a phoenix and that this has some, unspecified,
connection with the biblical Tower of Babel, are both unsupported speculations
on the part of the interpreter. The Phoenix symbol can be applied to whatever
one wishes. It could quite legitimately, and with no hint of anything sinister
or anti-Christian, be applied to either the “born-again” experience or the
doctrine of the resurrection in Christianity. In fact the fathers of the Church
saw it as a symbol of the immortal soul and the resurrection of Christ.
Also on the American dollar bill is the symbol of a single eye-in-a-triangle.
Officially the eye is said to be the “eye of God” and to signify divine
guidance or Providence, the symbol having its origins in renaissance art.
According to Barry Smith this cannot be true as God is always described as
having two eyes, plural, in scripture. Unfortunately he seems to fail to realise
that both the “eye-in-the-triangle” and the use of the word “eyes” in scripture
are purely symbolic or metaphorical. According to John 4:24 God is spirit and
therefore has no eyes at all. The respected Christian apologetics writer Walter
Martin brings the point home when discrediting a similar error allegedly made by
some Mormons when interpreting the Bible.
- “Progressing beyond this, another cardinal Mormon point of argument
is the fact that because expressions such as “the arm of the Lord,” “the
eye of the Lord,” “the hand of the Lord,” “nostrils,” “mouth,” etc., are
used, all tend to show that God possesses a physical form. However, they
have overlooked one important factor. This factor is that of literary
metaphor, extremely common in Old Testament usage. If the Mormons are to
be consistent in their interpretation, they should find great difficulty
in the Psalm where God is spoken of as “covering with his feathers,” and
man “trusting under his wings.” If God has eyes, ears, arms, hands,
nostrils, mouth, etc., why then does He not have feathers and wings?”.[- italics mine]
However, today the eye-in-the-triangle symbol does appear to be associated
with the occult. It is used on the lamen of the Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO),
an occult group, and appears on books written by one of the most infamous of
occultists, Aleister Crowley. The ancient Egyptians used a symbol of a single
eye to represent the God Horus. Barry Smith then equates this with the
eye-in-the-triangle and asserts that Horus is analogous to the Devil.
According to Egyptian mythology and symbolism Horus was not their
equivalent of the Devil but actually fought against him. At this point it
may be worth pointing out that Barry Smith seems to take the radical
fundamentalist evangelical attitude of; if he doesn”t think it’s Christian,
then it’s of the Devil. Cases in point, “All Eastern religions are of the
Devil”, “All Martial Arts are of the Devil”, and “If you”re not a born
again Christian, the Devil’s got you!”. Nevertheless, the Egyptian god
Horus, whether in reality or in myth, fought against the equivalent of the
Devil; that is “Typhon” or “Set”. Horus is also the equivalent of the
Greek god “Apollo” who fought against Python of night. It may also be
interesting to note the serpent symbolism and also that Apollo was the
expiatior of crime.
Another example of aberrant interpretation of symbolism; first Smith
claims that the Great Pyramid that appears on the back of the American dollar-bill
has no connection with America other than that it is an occult symbol. Then he
says that the Great Pyramid may actually be an ancient edifice to God. Once again
he presents no evidence to back him up in this assertion. This is also an example
of applying two completely different meanings to the same symbol according to the whim
of the interpreter. This does not mean that Mr Smith is wrong, but he cannot use the
assertion that the pyramid is an occult symbol as a basis on which to form the argument
that the American government is connected with occult secret societies. Smith claims that
the founding fathers of the US were all members of the NWO conspiracy and linked to
the Illuminati via the Freemasons. It was the founding fathers, Benjamin Franklin,
John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson, who had the task of designing the Great Seal, thus the
incorporation of “occult” symbols. However, this is irrelevant as their suggestions
for symbols were rejected and the final design was actually contributed by William
Barton or Charles Thomson in 1782. The pyramid is meant to represent strength
and endurance and is unfinished because the US will continue to grow more complete.
It is also meant to allude to the escape of the Israelites from the tyranny of Pharaoh,
to whom the founding fathers compared themselves symbolically. “Novus Ordo Seclorum”,
the Latin motif beneath the pyramid, translates as “a new world of the ages”, and the
number thirteen represents the original thirteen states of the Union. Not, as Barry
Smith claims, “New World Order”, which is sloppy Latin , or to denote witchcraft
by the number 13 respectively.
Further connections between occult secret societies and the American
government is the symbolism Barry Smith finds in the layout of certain landmark
buildings in Washington. Apparently, the Masonic square and compass, and the
inverted pentagram are mapped out in the positioning of certain key buildings
in the city. The lower point of the pentagram touches the White House, for example.
This kind of reasoning is not original to Barry Smith. Very similar ideas and
techniques have been used by other researchers, where figures such as pentagrams,
hexagrams, triangles and squares have all been found encoded in certain documents
and paintings. The theory being that the respective authors and artists knew
something we didn”t and left us a kind of geometrical code. These figures were then
found to have remarkable similarities with maps of a certain area of the countryside in
Southern France. Each point marked a landmark like a tower, castle, church, ancient
junction etc. The similarity with Barry Smith’s theory is readily apparent.
However,the conclusions of all this geometric detective work in France was
that Jesus did not die on the cross and lived on to father children, his family line still
being alive today. An embellishment to the story now claims that Jesus”
burial place has been discovered using the same methods; a mountain in Southern
France. It is alleged that this sinister secret has been kept in the hands
of secret societies down the ages, including the Templars and the Freemasons.
Anti-Christian propaganda or fact? It is claimed that the approach taken has proven
these claims scientifically. The point is these methods prove nothing and are far
from scientific in the proper sense of the word. Scientific principles
may have been applied, i.e. geometry, but that does not make the “hypothesis” scientific.
It can be seen that it is fairly easy to arrive at wild conclusions by using
such “evidence”. One final consideration concerning the symbols on the American dollar-bill
and in the plans of Washington is; what would be the purpose of putting them
there? If something is to be kept secret it isn”t usually advertised or even
hinted at without good reason. Unfortunately Barry Smith doesn”t appear to answer
In the past there has been a lot of controversy over whether or not
the theory of global warming is a reality. This debate continues today, however more
scientists are beginning to accept that the effect exists. The main disagreement
is over how much the global warming effect is natural and how much is caused by humankind.
The term global warming may be somewhat misleading. It does not
necessarily mean that every country will get warmer. Weather systems are complicated
things which, as everyone knows, are hard to predict. The average global temperature
may increase. This means that some places may get colder. In general the current world
climate will shift Northwards. Barry Smith’s point about water taking up less volume
than ice is correct. However, this would only be true for certain areas of the Arctic
which is frozen sea water. The water that would contribute to sea level rises is that
from snow and ice on Arctic land areas; parts of Canada, Russia, Scandinavia, Iceland,
Alaska, and the whole of Greenland. Much of the Antarctic is also frozen water
on land. Not only ice on land but also frozen water within the soil, permafrost, may also
contribute. Finally, another effect of an increase in temperature on a volume of
water is that it expands. This may, or may not, contribute to the global rise
in sea levels as well. To suggest that no one needs to worry about global warming is simply
complacent and irresponsible.
That the ozone “holes” over the poles grow and shrink with the seasons
is well known to scientists. The ozone hole over the Antarctic grows
during the spring and persists for several months before shrinking again. This is taken
into account when an overall percentage of ozone levels is calculated. This figure
is decreasing. A similar problem has been detected over the Arctic.
Ozone holes appear over the poles and not over major cities using CFCs
due to strong winds and air currents high in the atmosphere. This is largely
due to a vortex set up by the large land mass of the Antarctic. It is also important
to realise that the ozone “holes” are not holes as such but areas within which the ozone layer
is thin. This is most noticeable at the poles due to the collection of CFC gasses but
not necessarily confined to these areas. Finally, the idea that developing countries are
being coerced into throwing away their CFC containing fridges does not make sense.
No one would encourage this as a remedy to global warming. The CFCs within fridges
only leak into the atmosphere when the fridge is no longer used and has been discarded.
During normal use this is not a problem. If everyone threw away their fridges right now
this would result in a large volume of CFCs being released into the atmosphere
possibly making the ozone problem worse, certainly not better. It only takes one CFC molecule
to destroy 100,000 ozone molecules. Developing countries have until the
year 2010 to stop manufacturing fridges containing CFCs. Meanwhile, CFC containing
fridges can still be used. They are not being discarded in one move but phased out.
The explanation that the Earth can balance itself automatically without
human help is naive. It is true that ozone forms with oxygen molecules in the
presence of ultra-violet rays in sunlight. However, this process is incredibly
slow. As stated above, CFCs are highly destructive towards ozone molecules. If
the balance is exceeded the Earth’s natural replenishment of the ozone layer will
not be able to keep pace. A similar observation can be made concerning global warming.
Normally plants that photosynthesise convert the atmospheric carbon-dioxide into oxygen.
However, this too is a balance. If carbon-dioxide emissions increase due to
industrial activity, something that the Earth has not encountered before, and plant life
decreases, due to deforestation and a decrease in marine plankton, then carbon-dioxide
levels will increase.
The claims about the nuclear threat are arguably the most far-fetched.
Barry Smith asserts that nuclear weapons can only be detonated during the months
of April-June and October-December. However, the first nuclear bomb was detonated
at Alamogordo, New Mexico, in July 1945. Probably the most infamous
detonations occurred at Hiroshima, Japan, in August 1945 and Nagasaki, Japan, also
in August 1945. The first thermonuclear weapon was detonated by the United States in
November 1952, vapourising the island of Elogelab. Further thermonuclear
detonations were carried out by both the United States and the Soviet Union in March
1954 and August 1953 respectively.
More recently, the first test by the French at Muruoa occurred in September
1995. The claim that students at Universities are fed a fake equation is
equally unbelievable. This would mean either: a) all physicists in Universities are part
of a world-wide conspiracy of astounding proportions, or b) all physicists in Universities
are not bright enough to understand their own subject. Neither of these
possibilities is worthy of serious consideration.
Other ridiculous statements he makes include; a cure for AIDS has already
been found; this is done by simply passing the infected blood through
oxygen, and that the blue colour of ozone gas is responsible for the blue colour of the
sky, both of which are unscientific and incorrect.
Throughout the section of Barry Smith’s talk concerning the “red-herrings”
he seems to demonstrate an ignorance and contempt of both science and scientists.
Although maybe not directly affecting his other claims, this does reflect badly
on his validity and reliability.
As is common amongst conspiracy theorists Barry Smith manages to link
selective quoting of people, groups, and real events from politics and economics
with speculative theories and unfounded anecdote. It is just as impossible to
disprove a conspiracy theory such as this as it is to prove it.
Perhaps one of the best ways to check the theory, apart from checking
those facts that are accessible and applying some critical thinking, is to look for
ongoing developments in the media. For example, it is surprising that
in the talks being reviewed Barry Smith doesn”t draw on alleged alien abduction accounts
for further, albeit anecdotal, evidence. In some of these accounts the abductee
claims to have received a mysterious surgical implant. Perhaps the aliens are
simply a facade for secret government silicon chip implant tests. Neither does he mention
the electronic tagging of prisoners being experimented with currently.
Recently it has been declared that the Post Office will be strengthened
and improved and not, as Barry Smith has predicted, privatised. As regards
the satellite grid system it certainly seems possible that it could be implemented
if it hasn”t already, but this in itself, without linking to silicon chip implants,
contains no sinister implications. That the public would accept the idea of receiving
an implant in a similar way to that administered to animals is, in my opinion,
highly unlikely, would receive much opposition and make the whole idea untenable.
Finally, Barry Smith makes his own attempt to predict the date of the second coming.
It is not the first time this has been attempted by Christians, so
far most predictions have been proven embarrassingly false. As for the remaining ones,
only time will tell.
Unfortunately, Mr Smith provides very few references for the more extravagant
claims of his research. This is perfectly understandable up to a point. If his ideas are
correct then information and hard evidence on the relationships and
activities of the secret societies would be difficult to come by. However, this
would also be the case if his ideas were pure fantasy. A brief look at his books is
disappointing to the researcher who wants to be able to check Barry Smith’s facts.
There is no index, no bibliography, and no notes or references. Even books which do
contain all these aids to research are not necessarily reliable and are possibly just trying
to achieve an academic veneer. The only two books mentioned are “The Secret Teachings
of All Ages” by Manley Hall, and “The Order” by Anthony Sutton. Unfortunately, apart
from these one of the easiest means of communicating information to other researchers, i.e.
his books, are found to be lacking. Nevertheless, it could be that some references
are given in the body of the text itself. Interested readers are encouraged to
look for these and to bring them to the present writer’s attention.
Continuing from the previous discussion, is it therefore necessary to
conclude that Mr Smith’s facts, assuming not entirely fictional, rely on undocumentable
sources such as hearsay, gossip, and rumour? It is to be hoped this is not the
case as several of his assertions verge on slander, both secular and spiritual. According
to Barry Smith the Mormons, occult groups such as the OTO, the Freemasons, all Eastern
religions, martial artists, and George Bush are all serving the Devil and apparently
evil. This seems to be rather a strong judgement for someone who was told, “Do
not judge, or you too will be judged.” and “Stop judging by mere appearances, and
make a right judgement.” It could even be risking blasphemy.
What concerns the present writer is not simply the accuracy of the assertions made by
Barry Smith in themselves. His theories do not have to be correct for prophecy about
the Last Days to be real. Of more concern are the effects of what he is saying on his
listeners. How many people question what they hear? How many just don”t care?
How many soak it all up? And what damage does this cause? That someone should be
allowed to feed unreliable, possibly slanderous material to people is one thing,
when it is done in a Church by a religion, it is all the more serious.
This is effectively summed up in James 3:1 – 3:10:
Not many of you should presume to be teachers, my brothers, because
you know that we who teach will be judged more strictly.
We all stumble in many ways. If anyone is never at fault in what he
says, he is a perfect man, able to keep his whole body in check.
When we put bits into the mouths of horses to make them obey us, we
can turn the whole animal.
Or take ships as an example. Although they are so large and are driven
by strong winds, they are steered by a very small rudder wherever the
pilot wants to go.
Likewise the tongue is a small part of the body, but it makes great
Consider what a great forest is set on fire by a small spark.
The tongue also is a fire, a world of evil among the parts of the body.
It corrupts the whole person, sets the whole course of his life on fire,
and is itself set on fire by hell.
All kinds of animals, birds, reptiles and creatures of the sea are
being tamed and have been tamed by man, but no man can tame the tongue.
It is a restless evil, full of deadly poison.
With the tongue we praise our Lord and Father, and with it we curse men,
who have been made in God’s likeness.
Out of the same mouth come praise and cursing. My brothers, this should not be.
Perhaps his reprieve is that, according to him, Barry Smith has successfully
evangelised many people. If the Christian faith is indeed true, then this may be his
Michael J. Rush
1) “Everything is Under Control”, pp246-7, R.A. Wilson, HarperPerennial 1988.
2) ibid, pp247-9.
3) ibid, pp329-10.
4) http://users.uniserve.com/~ttrevor/anti-masonry_faq.html, T.W. McKeown, Dec 1998.
7) “The Secret Teachings of All Ages”, pp90 & 91, Manley Hall.
8) “Dictionary of Symbolism”, pp264-5, H. Biedermann, Roundhouse (1989) 1992.
9) http://users.uniserve.com/~ttrevor/anti-masonry_faq.html, T.W. McKeown, Dec 1998.
10) “The Kingdom of the Cults”, P225, W. Martin, Bethany House (1965) 1997.
11) “The Golden Bough”, P475, Sir James Frazer, Wordsworth (?) 1993.
12) “A Dictionary of Mythology”, Cassell & Company Ltd.
13) “The Guinness Encyclopedia of Signs & Symbols”, pp134-5, J. Foley, Guinness 1993.
14) “The Great Seal of the United States”, Microsoft Encarta 1997.
15) “Everything is Under Control”, pp215-6, R.A. Wilson, HarperPerrenial 1988.
16) “The Guinness Encyclopedia of Signs & Symbols”, pp134-5, J. Foley, Guinness 1993.
18) “The End of the World & The New world Order”, pp. 44-51, T. Callhan, Skeptic vol. 4,
no. 3, 1996, (http://www.skeptic.com/04.3.callahan-end.html).
19) “The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail”, M. Baigent, R. Leigh & H. Lincoln, Corgi (1982) 1993.
20) “Is this the tomb of Christ?”, K. Wilsher, The Mail on Sunday, 18 Aug 1996.
22) “The Arctic”, Microsoft Encarta 1997.
24) “Ozone Layer” , Microsoft Encarta 1997.
25) “Nuclear Weapons”, Samuel Glasstone, Microsoft Encarta 1997.
26) “Mad Bombers?”, pp62-64, Focus, November 1995.
27) “Nuclear Weapons”, Samuel Glasstone, Microsoft Encarta 1997.
28) “Mad Bombers?”, pp62-64, Focus, November 1995.
29) Mat 7:1 and John 7:24 respectively, quoted from the NIV translation.